Citations

[1] For more information on past reform efforts, please see Section II.

[2] Member Witnesses FY 2021 Budget Requests, 116th Congress (2020, March 4). House Committee on Appropriations. https://appropriations.house.gov/events/hearings/member-witnesses-fy2021-budget-requests

[3] H.R.7611, 116th Congress. Report No. 116-447. https://www.congress.gov/116/bills/hr7611/BILLS-116hr7611rh.pdf

[4] Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill Accompanying Report (Rpt. 116-447). 116th Congress. https://www.congress.gov/116/crpt/hrpt447/CRPT-116hrpt447.pdf

[5] See Appendix: Additional Related Reports.

[6] Dear Colleague: Electronic Submission of Legislative Documents (6, April 2020). Office of the Clerk.

[7] Member Day—The Committee on House Administration, 116th Congress (2019, November 21).

[8] Schneider, J., Davis, C.; Palmer, B. (2003). Reorganization of the House of Representatives: Modern Reform Efforts. https://archives-democrats-rules.house.gov/archives/RL31835.pdf

[9] Ibid.

[10] Office of the Historian. The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946. https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1901-1950/The-Legislative-Reorganization-Act-of-1946/.

[11] Schneider, J., Davis, C.; Palmer, B. (2003). Reorganization of the House of Representatives: Modern Reform Efforts. https://archives-democrats-rules.house.gov/archives/RL31835.pdf, p. 38

[12] Lynch, M. S. (n.d.). The Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45111.pdf

[13] Adopting the Rules for the 116th Congress, H. Res. 6, 116th Cong. (2018). https://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20181231/116-HRes6-SxS.pdf

[14] Restuccia, Andrew, Burgess Everett, Heather Caygle (2019, January 25). “Longest shutdown in history ends after Trump relents on wall” POLITICO. https://www.politico.com/story/2019/01/25/trump-shutdown-announcement-1125529

[15] Shear, Michael D., Peter Baker (2019, December 31). “Key Moments: The Day the House Impeached Trump”. New York Times.  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/18/us/politics/impeachment-vote.html 

[16] Taylor, Derrick B. (2020, August 6). “A Timeline of the Coronavirus Pandemic”. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/article/coronavirus-timeline.html

[17] Gallup Poll, “Congressional Job Approval” (2020) Congress and the Public. https://news.gallup.com/poll/1600/congress-public.aspx

[18] Adopting the Rules for the 116th Congress, H. Res. 6, 116th Cong. (2018). https://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20181231/116-HRes6-SxS.pdf

[19] See Appendix: Additional Related Reports.

[20] Ackley, K. (2019, November 14). House leaders give modernization panel more timehttps://www.rollcall.com/2019/11/14/house-leaders-give-modernization-panel-more-time/

[21] United States Export Finance Agency Act of 2019, H. Res. 4863, 116th Cong. (2019) https://rules.house.gov/bill/116/hr-4863#rule-information

[22] See Appendix: Additional Related Reports.

[23]  Fisher, L. (2009). On appreciating Congress: the people's branch. Paradigm Pub., Chafetz, J. (2017). Congress’ Constitution: Legislative Authority and the Separation of Powers. Yale University Press.

[24] Oleszek, Walter J. (2011). Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective on Secrecy and Transparency (CRS R42108).

[25] Opening up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong., 2nd Sess. (2010). The first set of Committee Reforms were passed on May 23, 2019. Opening up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong., 2nd Sess. (2010). The first set of Committee Reforms were passed on May 23, 2019.

[26] Congressional Reforms of the Past and Their Effect on Today’s Congress. 116th Congress. (2019, March 27); Opening up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Congress (2020, May 10); Improving Constituent Engagement. 116th Congress. (2019, June 5); Modernizing Legislative Information Technologies: Lessons from the States. 116th Congress. (2019, July 24); Promoting Civility and Building a More Collaborative Congress. 116th Congress. (2019, Sept. 26); Rules and Procedures in the U.S. House of Representatives: A Look at Reform Efforts and State Best Practices. 116th Congress. (2019, Dec. 5).

[27] Moving Our Democracy and Congressional Operations Towards Modernization Resolution, H.R. 756, 116th Cong. (2020).https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-resolution/756

[28] E.g. during The War of 1812 there were several secret sessions. More recently, the Capitol was closed to public visitors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Spring 2020. 

[29] Oleszek, Walter J. (2011). Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective on Secrecy and Transparency (CRS R42108).

[30] Full bios and hearing details can be found in the Appendix, Section 3: Committee Documents.

[31] D'Angelo, J., King, D. (2020, March 22) The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 & Other 1970s Sunshine Reforms. The Congressional Research Institute. http://www.congressionalresearch.org/LRA.html.

[32] Nordheimer, J. (1970, August 2).The House Decides to Stop Being So Secretive. New York Times.

[33] See Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective on Secrecy and Transparency (CRS R42108). (2011, November 30). and House and Senate Procedural Rules Concerning Earmark Disclosures (CRS RL34462). (2009, November 18).

[34] Public Law 116-135 (03/26/2020), except 116-113. https://uscode.house.gov/download/download.shtml

[35] Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946 Is Ineffective (1991, July 16). Government Accountability Office. https://www.gao.gov/assets/110/104007.pdf.

[36] Often called the “Daschle Loophole”, named after former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle (SD-01), who, despite earning over $2 million from a D.C. lobbying firm, never registered as a lobbyist because he “never directly contacted Members.”

[37] Arnsdorf, I. (July 3, 2016), The lobbying reform that enriched Congress. POLITICO.

[38] C-SPAN, “Our History”, https://www.c-span.org/about/history/.

[39] U. S. House of Representatives Press Gallery, “About the Gallery”, https://pressgallery.house.gov/about-the-gallery

[40] Lee, Frances E., 2016. Insecure majorities: Congress and the perpetual campaign. University of Chicago Press.; See also: Caygle, Heather and Sarah Ferris. 2019. “Do Not Tweet: Pelosi scolds progressives in closed-door meetings”, POLITICO.

[41] Quorum Analytics. (2018, May) Enacted Bills with Bipartisan Support at 20-Year Highhttps://www.quorum.us/data-driven-insights/may-2018-congressional-activity-report/292/

[42] Full bios and hearing details can be found in the Appendix: Committee Hearings (link here: https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/hearings)

[43] Also referred to as the “Posey Comparative Print Project”, named for Rep. Bill Posey (FL-15) who introduced a House Resolution to establish the project in the 115th Congress.

[44] Opening Up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong. (2019, May 10) (testimony of Robert Reeves).

[45] Comparative Print Project: Comparing the base document H.R. 2083, as reported, with the Rules Committee Print 115-79. https://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180625/CP-115HR2083RH-COMPARED-RCP115-79.pdf

[46] Opening Up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong. (2019, May 10) (testimony of Robert Reeves).

[47] Please see Chapter 3 of this report for recommendations pertaining to staff capacity, recruitment, and training.

[48] Often referred to as “the revolving door”. See more here: Nilsen, E. (2019, June 19). “Capitol Hill’s revolving door in one chart,” Vox.  https://www.vox.com/2019/6/19/18683550/capitol-hill-revolving-door-in-one-chart

[49] See Chapter 3 on improving resources for congressional staff, and Chapter 10 on recommendations to strengthen Article One.

[50] Opening Up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong. (2019, May 10) (testimony of Robert Reeves).

[51] Gill, C. R. and Morgenstern, E. M. (2019, June 27). Foreign Relations Reauthorization: Background and Issues (CRS). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/IF10293.pdf.

[52] Opening Up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong. (2019, May 10) (testimony of Robert Reeves).

[53] The True Size of Government, Tracking Washington’s Blended Workforce, 1984-2015, Volcker Alliance, (2017, September 29). https://www.volckeralliance.org/true-size-government.

[54] DataLab, “Federal Spending Overtime”, 2018. https://datalab.usaspending.gov/americas-finance-guide/spending/trends.html.

[55] Opening up the Process: Recommendations for Making Legislative Information More Transparent. 116th Cong., 2nd Sess. (2010).

[56] Eckman, S.J. (2019, January 23). Congressional Member Organizations (CMOs) and Informal Member Groups: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation (CRS). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40683.pdf

[57] Article One: Fostering a More Deliberative Process in Congress. 116th Cong., 2nd Sess. (2020, February 5).

[58] Gallup Polling. (2013). Turning back to Congress, earlier you said you disapprove of the job Congress is doing. Can you tell me some of the reasons why you disapprove of the job Congress is doing? [OPEN-ENDED] https://news.gallup.com/poll/1600/congress-public.aspx

[59] Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress hearing (@ModernizeCmte) Promoting Civility and Building a More Collaborative Congress. September 26, 2019.

[60] Establishing the Committee, H.Res. 6, Title II, voted on January 4, 2019 (http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2019/roll012.xml); extension of the Committee, self-executing rule attached to H. Res. 695, voted on November 14, 2019; and recommendations, H. Res. 756, voted on March 10, 2020 (http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2020/roll093.xml).

[61] U.S. House of Representatives, History, Art, and Archives. “Party Realignment”, https://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Temporary-Farewell/Party-Realignment/

[62] Mason, L. (2018). Uncivil agreement: How politics became our identity. University of Chicago Press.

[63] Lee, F. E. (2016). Insecure majorities: Congress and the perpetual campaign. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

[64] Former Member Day Hearing: Speaking from Experience, 116th Cong. (2019, May 1) (Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress),

[65] Carroll, R., Lewis, J., Lo, J., Poole, K., & Rosenthal, H. (2009). Measuring Bias and Uncertainty in DW-NOMINATE Ideal Point Estimates via the Parametric Bootstrap. Political Analysis, 17(3), 261-275.

[66] Miller, J. (2019, February 29). Party unity on congressional votes takes a dive: CQ Vote Studies. Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/2019/02/28/party-unity-on-congressional-votes-takes-a-dive-cq-vote-studies/

[67] Lewis, Jeffrey B., Keith Poole, Howard Rosenthal, Adam Boche, Aaron Rudkin, and Luke Sonnet (2020). Voteview: Congressional Roll-Call Votes Database. https://voteview.com/

[68] Jones, B. D. and Baumgartner, F. R. (2005). The politics of attention: How government prioritizes problems. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[69] Curry, J. M. and Lee, F. E. (2020). The limits of party: Congress and lawmaking in a polarized era. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Davis, C. M. (2019, May 20). “The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction” (CRS: 95-563). https://www.senate.gov/CRSpubs/8098f506-ee7b-42c7-a003-92f13aaec0bc.pdf.

[72] Alberta, Tim (2019, September 27). “When Impeachment Meets a Broken Congress” POLITICOhttps://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2019/09/27/impeachment-trump-congress-house-228346

[73] Sinclair, B. (2016). Unorthodox lawmaking: New legislative processes in the US Congress. CQ Press.

[74] Curry, J. and Lee, F. E. (2016, December 20) “Congress is far more bipartisan than headlines suggest”, Washington Post.https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/12/20/congress-is-far-more-bipartisan-than-headlines-suggest/

[75] Hibbing, J. R., & Theiss-Morse, E. (2002). Stealth democracy: Americans' beliefs about how government should work. Cambridge University Press.

[76] Promoting Civility and Building a More Collaborative Congress (2019, September 27) 116th Congress.

[77] Conference on the Organizational Climate of Congress. (2019, October 24, 2019). University of Maryland, College Park Maryland. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7jcYRKquLk&list=PLwlvq8EJzDziHv_2f_KAICRmeKprDBjuJ&index=6&t=0s

[78] See section IV: Conclusion, for a discussion on future reform efforts.

[79] Comparing the Compensation of Federal and Private-Sector Employees, 2011 to 2015 (2017, April 25). CBO. https://www.cbo.gov/publication/52637#:~:text=Federal%20civilian%20workers%20with%20no,than%20their%20private%2Dsector%20counterparts.

[80] Petersen, R. E., Eckman, S. J. (2016, November 9). Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2006-2016. (CRS: R44682). https://www.crs.gov/Reports/R44682?source=search&guid=a5f6be9198e94fa4b90028f23cd06065&index=3.; Burgat, C. (2019, March 14). “Who’s on the Hill? Staffing and Human Capital in Congress’ Legislative Committees”, R. Street Institute. https://www.rstreet.org/2019/03/14/whos-on-the-hill-staffing-and-human-capital-in-congresss-legislative-committees/.

[81] Schuman, D. (2018, June 6). “Keeping Congress Competent: Staff Pay, Turnover, And What It Means for Democracy”, Medium. https://medium.com/@danielschuman/keeping-congress-competent-staff-pay-turnover-and-what-it-means-for-democracy-a6a4bfe2c1f3

[82] Gale, R. (2015, April 20). “Hill Staffer Student Loan Perk Comes with Caveats”, Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/2015/04/20/hill-staffer-student-loan-perk-comes-with-caveats/

[83] Cultivating Diversity and Improving Retention Among Congressional Staff, 116th Congress. (2019, June 20). (Testimony of Alonso, A.) https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190620/109672/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-AlonsoA-20190620-U1.pdf

[84] Racial Diversity Among Top House Staff (2018, August 24). Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. https://jointcenter.org/racial-diversity-among-top-house-staff/.

[85] Cultivating Diversity and Improving Retention Among Congressional Staff, 116th Congress. (2019, June 20).

[86] Virtual Discussion: Conversation on Congressional Staffing, 116th Congress. (2020, June 4); Virtual Discussion: American Political Science Task Force, 116th Congress. (2020, June 18); Virtual Discussion: Boosting Internal Expertise in Congress, 116th Congress (2020, June 25).

[87] Staff Assistants /Legislative Correspondents (on July 19, 2019); Comms Staff (on July 26 and July 30, 2019); Personal Staff Members / Legislative Assistants / Legislative Directors (on July 31, 2019) ; and Chiefs of Staff / Staff Directors (on August 1, 2019); all staff (September 16, 2019); virtual sessions August 2020.

[88] Adopting the Rules of the House of Representatives for the One Hundred Sixteenth Congress, and for other purposes, 116th Congress. H.Res.6. 116th (2018).

[89] Please see Section 3 for suggestions on future reforms in this arena.

[90] See Chapters 6-9 for these recommendations.

[91] Society for Human Resource Management (2019). 2019 Employee Benefits Survey, SHRM. https://shrm.org/hr-today/trends-and-forecasting/research-and-surveys/Pages/Benefits19.aspx?_ga=2.170221159.633946006.1600186713-699811251.1600186713

[92] Society for Human Resource Management (2019). 2019 Employee Benefits Survey, SHRM. https://shrm.org/hr-today/trends-and-forecasting/research-and-surveys/Pages/Benefits19.aspx?_ga=2.170221159.633946006.1600186713-699811251.1600186713

[93] Ibid.

[94] Cultivating Diversity and Improving Retention Among Congressional Staff, 116th Congress. (2019, June 20). (Testimony of Alonso, A.) https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190620/109672/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-AlonsoA-20190620-U1.pdf

[95] See Public Law 116-92, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020, 116th Congress, Section 7603. (2020)  https://www.congress.gov/116/plaws/publ92/PLAW-116publ92.pdf

[96] Ibid.

[97] Congressional Management Foundation (n.d.) Life in Congress. https://www.congressfoundation.org/projects/life-in-congress

[98] See Federal Employee Health Benefits (FEHB) Facts, Office of Personnel Management https://www.opm.gov/retirement-services/publications-forms/pamphlets/ri75-13.pdf

[99] Cilluffo, A. (2019, August 13) 5 facts about student loans. Pew Research Center https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/08/13/facts-about-student-loans/

[100] H.R. 748 CARES Act, 116th, Congress. https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/748

[101] Congressional Management Foundation, Life in Congress: Job Satisfaction and Engagement of House and Senate Staff (2013)

[102] House and Senate rules prevent staff from earning more than Members, who make $174,000. Increasing Member salaries (and thereby raising the cap on staff salaries) requires Members to vote in favor raising their own salaries.

[103] Furnas, A. and LaPira, T. (2020, September). Congressional Brain Drain. New America. https://www.newamerica.org/political-reform/reports/congressional-brain-drain/

[104] Ibid.

[105] Task Force on Congressional Reform (2019, September). American Political Science Association https://www.apsanet.org/Portals/54/APSA%20RPCI%20Congressional%20Reform%20Report.pdf?ver=2020-01-09-094944-627

[106] Select Committee Hosts Virtual Discussion on Boosting Internal Expertise in Congress, 116th Congress(2020, June 25) https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/virtual-discussions/select-committee-hosts-virtual-discussion-on-boosting-internal-expertise-in-congress

[107] Ibid.

[108] Graves, Z. Rebuilding Congress’ Policy Capacity (2020, July 8) The Federalist Society. https://fedsoc.org/commentary/fedsoc-blog/rebuilding-congress-policy-capacity

[109] Furnas, A. and LaPira, T. (2020, September). Congressional Brain Drain. New America. https://www.newamerica.org/political-reform/reports/congressional-brain-drain/

[110] Task Force on Congressional Reform (2019, September). American Political Science Association https://www.apsanet.org/Portals/54/APSA%20RPCI%20Congressional%20Reform%20Report.pdf?ver=2020-01-09-094944-627

[111] Cultivating Diversity and Improving Retention Among Congressional Staff, 116th Congress. (2019, June 20). (Testimony of Alonso, A.) https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190620/109672/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-AlonsoA-20190620-U1.pdf

[112] McPherson, L. (2019, January 3). House adopts rules package with few Democratic defections over PAYGO provision. Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/2019/01/03/house-adopts-rules-package-with-few-democratic-defections-over-paygo-provision/

[113] About the House Office of Diversity and Inclusion (n.d.). https://diversity.house.gov/about

[114] Marquette, C. (2019, September 27). House employee survey shows discontent with pay. Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/2019/09/27/house-employee-survey-shows-discontent-with-pay/.

[115] Racial Diversity Among Top House Staff (2018, August 24). Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. https://jointcenter.org/racial-diversity-among-top-house-staff/.

[116] James, J (2020). The Color of Congress: Racial Representation Among Interns in the U.S. House of Representatives. Pay Our Interns.

[117] Ibid.

[118] Burgat, C. (2019, March 14). “Who’s on the Hill?  Staffing and Human Capital in Congress’ Legislative Committees”, R. Street Institute. https://www.rstreet.org/2019/03/14/whos-on-the-hill-staffing-and-human-capital-in-congresss-legislative-committees/.

[119] Liswood, L. A. (2009). The loudest duck: Moving beyond diversity while embracing differences to achieve success at work. John Wiley & Sons.

[120] Cultivating Diversity and Improving Retention Among Congressional Staff, 116th Congress. (2019, June 20) (Testimony of Mitchell, K.)https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190620/109672/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-MitchellK-20190620-U1.pdf

[121] Conversation on Congressional Staffing, 116thCongress. (2020, June 4) https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/virtual-discussions/the-select-committee-on-the-modernization-of-congress-conversation-on-congressional-staffing; Select Committee Hosts Virtual Discussion with American Political Science Association Task Force, 116th Congress (2020, June 18) https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/virtual-discussions/select-committee-hosts-virtual-discussion-with-american-political-science-association-task-force-; Select Committee Hosts Virtual Discussion on Boosting Internal Expertise in Congress, 116th Congress(2020, June 25) https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/virtual-discussions/select-committee-hosts-virtual-discussion-on-boosting-internal-expertise-in-congress

[122] Task Force on Congressional Reform (2019, September). American Political Science Association https://www.apsanet.org/Portals/54/APSA%20RPCI%20Congressional%20Reform%20Report.pdf?ver=2020-01-09-094944-627 

[123] Select Committee Hosts Virtual Discussion on Boosting Internal Expertise in Congress, 116th Congress(2020, June 25) https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/virtual-discussions/select-committee-hosts-virtual-discussion-on-boosting-internal-expertise-in-congress

[124] Cultivating Diversity and Improving Retention Among Congressional Staff, 116th Congress. (2019, June 20). (Testimony of Alonso, A.) https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190620/109672/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-AlonsoA-20190620-U1.pdf

[125] Edmonson, C. (2019, March 15). In Most Diverse House, Aides of Color Join the Ranks of ‘Firsts’. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/15/us/house-staff-minorities-democrats.html

[126] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Congress. (2019, July 11.) (Testimony of Shapiro, R.) https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-ShapiroR-20190711-U1.pdf

[127] Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2017 (2018, May). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. https://www.federalreserve.gov/publications/files/2017-report-economic-well-being-us-households-201805.pdf

[128] Press Release: Living Paycheck to Paycheck is a Way of Life for Majority of U.S. Workers. (2017, Aug. 24). Career Builder. http://press.careerbuilder.com/2017-08-24-Living-Paycheck-to-Paycheck-is-a-Way-of-Life-for-Majority-of-U-S-Workers-According-to-New-CareerBuilder-Survey

[129] Burgess, M. (2014, May). How frequently do private businesses pay employees? U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-businesses-pay-workers.htm

[130] American Political Science Association (2019, October). Congressional Reform Task Force, Final Report. https://www.apsanet.org/Portals/54/APSA%20RPCI%20Congressional%20Reform%20Report.pdf?ver=2020-01-09-094944-627.

[131] Please see Chapter 8 for more details on Franking costs.

[132] H.R. 748 CARES Act, 116th, Congress. https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/748

[133] Kohll, A. (2019, Jan. 24). “How Your Office Space Impacts Employee Well-Being”. Forbes Magazine. https://www.forbes.com/sites/alankohll/2019/01/24/how-your-office-space-impacts-employee-wellbeing/#7871991264f3

[134] Letter to the Select Committee from Rep. Emanuel Cleaver (2019, December 11).

[135] See Appendix: Additional Related Reports.

[136] Tully-McManus, K. (2018, November 13). “New Members of Congress Hit the Books in DC”, Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/2018/11/13/new-members-of-congress-hit-the-books-in-dc/

[137] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Cong. 2. (2019, July 11) (Testimony of: Richard Shapiro).https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-ShapiroR-20190711-U1.pdf

[138] Congressional Management Foundation. New Member Resource Center https://www.congressfoundation.org/congressional-operations/new-member-resource-center

[139] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Cong. 2. (2019 ,July 11) (Testimony of: Phillip Kiko).https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-ShapiroR-20190711-U1.pdf

[140] Ibid.

[141] Former State Legislators in the 115th Congress” (2018). United States Senatehttps://www.ncsl.org/Portals/1/Documents/statefed/Former_State_Legislators_115th_Congress.pdf

[142] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Cong. 2. (2019, July 11) (Testimony of: Richard Shapiro).https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-HouseholderS-20190711-U1.pdf

[143] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Cong. 2. (2019, July 11) (Testimony of: Stacy Householder).https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-HouseholderS-20190711-U1.pdf

[144] See Chapter 2 on Bipartisanship and Civility for more recommendations regarding nonpartisan and bipartisan orientations and trainings.

[145] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Cong. 2. (2019, July 11) (Testimony of: Richard Shapiro).https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-ShapiroR-20190711-U1.pdf

[146] Fostering the Next Generation of Leaders: Setting Members up for Success, 116th Cong. 5. (2019, Jull 11) (Testimony of: Stacy Householder) https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190711/109766/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-HouseholderS-20190711-U1.pdf.

[147] Full Committee Hearing: Member Day Hearing, 116th Cong. 1. (2019, March 12). (Testimony of: Kathleen Rice).https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20190312/109102/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-R000602-20190312.pdf

[148] See Chapters 6 and 9 for more information on technology and continuity of Congress reforms. 

[149] The House Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure. (2019)Jurisdiction and Rules. https://transportation.house.gov/about/jurisdiction-and-rules

[150] Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336. https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/disability/ada. ADA Amendments Act of 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-325. https://www.eeoc.gov/statutes/ada-amendments-act-2008

[151] https://www.eeoc.gov/statutes/ada-amendments-act-2008

[152] Pub. L. No. 101-336, § 509 104 Stat. 373 (1990).

[153] See 114th Congress Accessibility Report: Biennial Report on Americans with Disabilities Act Inspections Relating to Public Services and Accommodations. Office of Congressional Workplace Rightsp 42. (2019, October).https://www.ocwr.gov/sites/default/files/ADA%20Report%20114th%20Congress.pdf

[154] Audio and Visual Coverage. CONGRESS.GOV Resources. https://www.congress.gov/resources/display/content/Audio+and+Visual+Coverage

[155] Press Release: Imagine the Congress of the Future: Calling on Tech Community to Help Modernize Congress. (2015, June 5). Office of Rep. Cathy McMorris Rogers. https://mcmorris.house.gov/imagining-the-congress-of-the-future-mcmorris-rodgers-calls-on-tech-community-to-help-modernize-congress/

[156] See Appendix: Additional Related Reports.

[157] Press Release: Modernization Committee Unanimously Approves Second Round of Congressional Recommendations (2019, July 25). https://modernizecongress.house.gov/news/press-releases/select-committee-unanimously-approves-second-round-congressional-recommendations

[158] H.R. 756, Title III

[159] Task Force on Congressional Reform: Report from the Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation. (2019, September). American Political Science Association. https://www.legbranch.org/app/uploads/2019/10/APSA-Technology-and-Innovation-short-report-10-2019.pdf

[160] Harris, M., Abernathy, C. and Esterling, K. (2020, June 18). Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2020/06/18/congressional-modernization-jump-started-by-covid-19/

[161] Jaikaran, C. (2018,March 9). Cybersecurity: Selected Issues for the 115th Congress (CRS: R45127). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45127.pdf.

[162] Sargent, J., Jr. (2020, April 9). The Office of Technology Assessment: History, Authorities, Issues, and Options. (CRS: R46327). https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20200429_R46327_ccb2df95a922525df3457606c9fd1b4322c6492e.pdf.

[163] Graves, Z. and Kosar, K. (2018, January). “Bring in the Nerds: Reviving the Office of Technology Assessment”, R Street Institute. https://www.rstreet.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Final-128.pdf.

[164] Sargent, J., Jr. (2020, April 9). The Office of Technology Assessment: History, Authorities, Issues, and Options. (CRS: R46327). https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20200429_R46327_ccb2df95a922525df3457606c9fd1b4322c6492e.pdf.

[165] Cordell, Carten. (2018, June 11). “Attempt to reinstate the congressional technology office falls flat in House”, Fed Scoop. https://www.fedscoop.com/house-office-of-technology-assessment-fails/

[166] See Chapter 9 (Continuity of Congress) for more information on these recommendations.

[167] For the purposes of this report, “commodity technology” is defined as a standard offering to each office of what technologies will be provided (i.e. equipment, hardware, software, websites, and IT/Telecom support).

[168] For more information on the MRA, see: Strand, M. and Lang, T. (2019, April 4). The Sausage Factor—The Members’ Representational Allowance (MRA): Looking at House Personal Office Budgets. Congressional Institute. https://www.congressionalinstitute.org/2019/04/05/the-members-representational-allowance-mra-looking-at-house-personal-office-budgets/

[169] See Chapter 3 for more information on how the MRA impacts congressional staff.

[170] Administrative Efficiencies: Exploring Options to Streamline Operations in the United States House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2019, November 15). (Testimony of Drew Wilson). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191115/110215/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-WillisonD-20191115-U1.pdf

[171] The Modernization Committee has made recommendations to quickly approve and test the adoption of technology. See Chapter 6 for more detail on these recommendations.

[172] Administrative Efficiencies: Exploring Options to Streamline Operations in the United States House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2019, November 15). (Testimony of Michael Ptasienski). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191115/110215/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-PtasienskiM-20191115-U1.pdf

[173] Administrative Efficiencies: Exploring Options to Streamline Operations in the United States House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2019, November 15). (Testimony of R. Eric Petersen). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191115/110215/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-PetersenR-20191115-U1.pdf

[174] Administrative Efficiencies: Exploring Options to Streamline Operations in the United States House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2019, November 15). (Testimony of Michael Ptasienski). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191115/110215/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-PtasienskiM-20191115-U1.pdf

[175] Ibid, p. 4.

[176] Administrative Efficiencies: Exploring Options to Streamline Operations in the United States House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2019, November 15). (Testimony of Drew Wilson). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191115/110215/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-WillisonD-20191115-U1.pdf

[177] Administrative Efficiencies: Exploring Options to Streamline Operations in the United States House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2019, November 15). (Testimony of Michael Ptasienski). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191115/110215/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-PtasienskiM-20191115-U1.pdf, p. 4.

[178] Press Release: Dear Colleague to All Members on Electronic Submission of Floor Documents (2020, April 6). Office of Speaker Nancy Pelosi. https://www.speaker.gov/newsroom/4620

[179] Press Release: Committee Approves Key Modernization Initiatives and Priorities. (2020, July 10). Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress. https://modernizecongress.house.gov/news/press-releases/committee-approves-key-modernization-initiatives-and-priorities

[180] Glassman, N. (2016). Franking Privilege: Historical Development and Options for Change (CRS: RL34274). R Retrieved from Congressional Research Service: https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20160503_RL34274_c2c157c78b4366719fe5664ed3fe727b70c63ed5.pdf

[181] Strauss, J. and Glassman, M. (2016, May 26). Social Media in Congress: The Impact of Electronic Media on Member Communications (CRS: R44509).

[182] Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress: Improving Constituent Engagement (2019, June 5). 116th Congress. Testimony from Fitch, Brad, Congressional Management Foundation.

[183] “2019 Report: Congress on Social Media” (2019, December). Quorum Analytics. Accessible for download here: https://www.quorum.us/reports/2019-congressional-social-media-report/

[184] Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress: Congress and the Frank, Bringing Congress into the 21st Century (2019, October 31). Testimony from Rep. Davis, Rodney.

[185] Full bios and hearing details can be found in the Appendix: Committee Hearings (link here: https://modernizecongress.house.gov/committee-activity/hearings)

[186] One of the recommendations being the renaming of the House Franking Commission to the current, House Communication Standards Commission. See the full text of the recommendations in Appendix, Committee Documents.

[187] Glassman, M. (2016). Franking Privilege: Historical Development and Options for Change (CRS: RL34274).

[188] Currently, the secretary of the Senate, the sergeant at arms of the Senate, each of the elected officers of the House (other than a Member of the House), the legislative counsels of the House and Senate, the law revision counsel of the House, and the Senate legal counsel are granted the franking privilege. Congressional Committees are provided franking privilege, but the 109th Congress limited the amount of money committees could spend to $5,000 and placed strict limitations on the messaging capabilities of committees. For more information, see: Glassman, M. (2016). Franking Privilege: Historical Development and Options for Change (CRS: RL34274).

[189] Received mail was granted the franking privilege from 1789-1873.

[190] Glassman, M.  (2015, May 6). Franking Privilege: Mass Mailings and Mass Communications in the House, 1997-2014 (CRS: RL34458).

[191] A key denotation: emails to constituents that self-selected into a subscription list do not fall under franked mail.

[192] Glassman, M. (2016). Franking Privilege: Historical Development and Options for Change (CRS: RL34274).  

[193] For more details on the MRA, please see: Brudnick, I. A. (2019, September 3). Members’ Representational Allowance: History and Usage (CRS: R40962).

[194] Coalition to End the Permanent Government v. Marvin T. Runyon et al. (1992) 979 F.2d 219 (D.C.Cir).

[195] Since October 1994, the U.S. Senate limits mass mailings to $50,000 per session of Congress.

[196] Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY1997, P.L. 104-197, 110 Stat. 2394. 2414-2415, §311.

[197] U.S. Congress, Committee on House Oversight, Report on the Activities of the Committee on House Oversight during the 106th Congress, 106th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Rept. 106-1056 (Washington: GPO, 2001), p. 14

[198] Franking Commission rules provide specific procedures for the filing and disposition of complaints. See ibid., pp. 33-45.

[199] 2019 Report: Congress on Social Media (2019, December). Quorum Analytics.

[200] Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress: Congress and the Frank, Bringing Congress into the 21st Century (2019, October 31). Testimony from Rep. Brooks, Susan.

[201] Strauss, J. and Glassman, M. (2016, May 26). Social Media in Congress: The Impact of Electronic Media on Member Communications (CRS: R44509).

[202] Members Congressional Handbook. See also: Strauss, J. and Glassman, M. (2016, May 26). Social Media in Congress: The Impact of Electronic Media on Member Communications (CRS: R44509).

[203] Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress: Congress and the Frank: Bringing Congressional Mailing Standards into the 21st Century. 116th Congress. (2019, October 31). October 31, 2019.

[204] Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress: Improving Constituent Engagement. 116th Cong. (2019, June 5).

[205] Shumaker, Erin (2020, July 28). Timeline: How Coronavirus Got Started. ABC News. Retrieved from: https://abcnews.go.com/Health/timeline-coronavirus-started/story?id=69435165

[206] Tully-McManus, Katherine (2020, March 12). Coronavirus Closes Capitol to Tours. Roll Call. Retrieved from: https://www.rollcall.com/2020/03/12/coronavirus-closes-capitol-to-tours/

[207] United States: House of Representatives Adopts Temporary Procedure for Voting by Proxy (2020, May 18). Retrieved from: https://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/united-states-house-of-representatives-adopts-temporary-procedure-for-voting-by-proxy/

[208] The final vote on H. Res. 965 was 217-185. (2020, May 15). Vote record: https://clerk.house.gov/Votes/2020107

[209] Palmer, Anna (2020, July 30). The congressional underclass erupts in fury after Gohmert gets Covid-19. POLITICO. Retrieved from: https://www.politico.com/news/2020/07/30/capitol-hill-angry-gohmert-coronavirus-388230

[210] Marquette, Chis (2020, June 19). Coronavirus cases climbing among front-line workers in Congress. Roll Call. Retrieved from: https://www.rollcall.com/2020/06/19/coronavirus-cases-climbing-among-frontline-workers-in-congress/

[211] Virtual Discussion: Conversation on Remote Office Work and Best Practices from Federal Agencies. 116thCongress (2020, May 20).

[212] Ibid.

[213] Ibid.

[214] Ibid.

[215] Press Release: OPM Announces the COVID-19 Surge Response Program (2020, March 27). Office of Personnel and Management. Retrieved from: https://www.opm.gov/news/releases/2020/03/opm-announces-the-covid-19-surge-response-program/

[216] For more information on this recommendation, please see Chapter 8: Continuity of Congress of this report.

[217] The House Parliamentarian requires wet signatures, in compliance with the Congressional Review Act. For more information: The Congressional Review Act (CRA): Frequently Asked Questions (CRS: R43992) (2020, January 14).

[218] Office of Management and Budget 2020 Memoranda (2020). Accessible here: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/information-for-agencies/memoranda/?utm_source=link

[219] Examples include NASA: https://nasapeople.nasa.gov/coronavirus/ and NIH: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml

[220] What You Should Know About COVID-19 and the ADA, the Rehabilitation Act, and Other EEO Laws (2020, September 8). U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved from: https://www.eeoc.gov/wysk/what-you-should-know-about-covid-19-and-ada-rehabilitation-act-and-other-eeo-laws

[221] Ready to Return to the Workplace: 25 Prompts for Agency Leaders (2020, May 18). Partnership for Public Service. Retrieved from: https://ourpublicservice.org/publications/ready-to-return-to-the-workplace-25-prompts-for-agency-leaders/

[222] Virtual Discussion: Conversation on Remote Office Work and Best Practices from Federal Agencies. 116thCongress (2020, May 20).

[223] Examples of Constitutional Provisions Relating to Continuity of Government (2020, March 6). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved from: https://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/examples-of-constitutional-provisions-relating-to-continuity-of-government.aspx

[224] As of September 11, 2020 NCSL reported no postponements. Legislative Sessions and the Coronavirus (2020, September 11). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved from: https://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/legislative-sessions-and-the-coronavirus.aspx

[225] Wood, Natalie (2020, April 14). Banging the Gavel Instead of Dropping the Puck – Convening in the Age of Covid. Retrieved from: https://www.ncsl.org/blog/2020/06/16/banging-the-gavel-instead-of-dropping-the-puck-convening-in-the-age-of-covid.aspx

[226] Continuity of Legislatures during Covid (2020, August 27). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved from: https://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/continuity-of-legislature-during-emergency.aspx

[227] Wood, Natalie (2020, April 14). Banging the Gavel Instead of Dropping the Puck – Convening in the Age of Covid. Retrieved from: https://www.ncsl.org/blog/2020/06/16/banging-the-gavel-instead-of-dropping-the-puck-convening-in-the-age-of-covid.aspx

[228] Continuity of Legislative Activities during Emergency Situations (2020, March). Library of Congress. Retrieved from: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/emergency-legislative-activities/index.php

[229] Ibid, see sections I-III.

[230] Document provided by the EU, shared with the Select Committee.

[231] “European parliament to hold special one day plenary”, CGTN (2020, September 1).

[232] Continuity in Legislatures Amid COVID-19: An Updated Snapshot (2020, April 24). The Gov Lab, Medium. Retrieved from: https://crowd.law/continuity-in-legislatures-amid-covid-19-an-updated-snapshot-6e935b4b5b54

[233] https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-resolution/965

[234] See Section IV: Conclusion, for a discussion on future areas for reform.

[235] APSA Committee on Parties, “Towards a More Responsible Two-Party System,” American Political Science Review, Supplement, 44.3 (September 1950): 1-96; E.E. Schattschneider, Party Government: American Government in Action (New York, Transaction Publishers, 1942).

[236] Woodall R. (2020, September 12).  Perspectives on Polarized Governance: Reflections of Two Departing Members of Congress (Rouse, S. for the American Political Science Association).

[237] Article One: Restoring Congressional Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress (2020, January 14); Article One: Fostering a More Deliberative Debate in Congress. 116th Congress (2020, February 5).

[238] Congressional Oversight: An Overview (CRS R41079) (2010, February 22).

[239] Ibid.

[240] Ibid.

[241] Baumgartner, F. R., & Jones, B. D. (2015). The politics of information: Problem definition and the course of public policy in America. University of Chicago Press.

[242] Article One: Restoring Congressional Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress (2020, January 14) (testimony of Dr. Rachel Augustine Potter).

[243] Congressional Oversight: An Overview (CRS R41079) (2010, February 22).

[244] Article One: Restoring Congressional Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress (2020, January 14) (testimony of Dr. Kevin Kosar).

[245] Rebuilding Congress’ Capacity, Federalist Society (2020, July 8).

[246] Ibid.

[247] Congressional Apportionment, 2010 Census Brief. U.S. Census Bureau (2011, November).

[248] Article One: Restoring Congressional Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress (2020, January 14) (testimony of Dr. Kevin Kosar).

[249] Ibid.

[250] Ibid and Vital Statistics on Congress, Chapter 5. The Brookings Institution (2019, March 4.)

[251] Vital Statistics on Congress, Chapter 5. The Brookings Institution (2019, March 4.)

[252] See for detailed committee staffing trends: Who’s on the Hill: Staffing and Human Capital in Congress’ Legislative Committees, R Street Institute (Burgat, Casey and Dukeman, Ryan) (2018).

[253] Article One: Restoring Congressional Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress (2020, January 14) (testimony of Dr. Kevin Kosar).

[254] Article One: Restoring Congressional Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress (2020, January 14) (testimony of Elise Bean).

[255] Article One: Fostering Deliberation in the U. S. House of Representatives. 116th Congress. (2020, February 5) (Testimony of Dr. James Curry). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20200205/110439/HHRG-116-MH00-Wstate-CurryJ-20200205.pdf

[256] Ibid.

[257] Wilson, W. (1885). Congressional government: A study in American politics. Boston, Houghton.

[258] Promoting Civility and Building a More Collaborative Congress. 116th Congress (2019, September 26) (testimony of Jason Grumet).

[259] See Part II for an overview of prior select committees.

[260] Article One: Fostering a More Deliberative Process in Congress. 116th Congress (2020, February 5) (testimony of Dr. Norman Ornstein).

[261] Article One: Fostering a More Deliberative Process in Congress. 116th Congress (2020, February 5)

[262] Hudak, J. (2014). Presidential pork: White House influence over the distribution of federal grants. Brookings Institution Press.

[263] The Permanent Apportionment Act of 1929. (n.d.) (Office of the Historian, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House). https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1901-1950/The-Permanent-Apportionment-Act-of-1929/

[264] Lee, F. E. and Oppenheimer, B. I. (1999). Sizing up the Senate: The unequal consequences of equal representation. University of Chicago Press.

[265] Hudak, J. (2014). Presidential pork: White House influence over the distribution of federal grants. Brookings Institution Press.

[266] Ibid.

[267] Scheck, T. and Busche, K. (2019, May 23). How Congress, Trump and Obama played favorites with transportation money. APM Reports. https://www.apmreports.org/story/2019/05/23/congress-earmarks-tiger-build-grants

[268] Article One: Restoring Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress. (2020, January 14). (Testimony from Dr. John Hudak).

[269] Hudak, J. (2014). Presidential pork: White House influence over the distribution of federal grants. Brookings Institution Press.

[270] Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices. (2016, January 14). (CRS: RL32473). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32473/32; Reynolds, M. (2018). Vital Statistics on Congress. Brooking Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/multi-chapter-report/vital-statistics-on-congress/.

[271] Adler, E. S., & Wilkerson, J. D. (2013). Congress and the politics of problem solving. Cambridge University Press.

[272] Please see Chapter 11 for more details on the implications of “governing by CR”.

[273] Press Release: Executive Order: Protecting American Taxpayers from Government Spending on Wasteful Earmarks (2008, January 29). The White House, President George Bush. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/01/20080129-5.html

[274] Article One: Restoring Capacity and Equipping Congress to Better Serve the American People. 116th Congress. (2020, January 14). (Testimony from Rachel Potter); Yes, Earmarks Can Be Part of Smart and Responsible Governing (2018, March 3). Congressional Institute. https://www.congressionalinstitute.org/2018/03/26/yes-earmarks-can-be-part-of-smart-responsible-governing/.

[275] This requirement applies to bills (particularly appropriations legislation and tax measures), committee reports, conference reports, managers amendments, Senate bills, and conference report. See: Lynch, M. (2015, May 21). Earmark Disclosure Rules in the House: Member and Committee Requirements (CRS: RS22866). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS22866.pdf

[276] Fact Sheet: Renew the Earmark Ban. (2018, December 13). The Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/budget-and-spending/report/fact-sheet-renew-the-earmark-ban; The Sausage Factory. (2019, May 5). Congressional Institute. https://www.congressionalinstitute.org/2019/05/15/making-the-case-to-reinstate-earmarks/; Hudak, John. (2015, December 27). Congress in 2019: Why the first branch should bring back earmarks. Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2018/12/27/congress-in-2019-why-the-first-branch-should-bring-back-earmarks/

[277] Lynch, M. (2015, May 21). Earmark Disclosure Rules in the House: Member and Committee Requirements (CRS: RS22866). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS22866.pdf; Earmarks and the Earmark Process. (2011, March). Taxpayers for Commonsense. https://www.taxpayer.net/wp-content/uploads/ported/images/downloads/TCS_Earmark_FAQ_2011.pdf.

[278] See more here: The Dayton Region Priority Development and Advocacy Community (PDAC). https://www.daytonregion.com/ddc/pdac.

[279] For more information on TIGER Grants, see: The TIGER/BUILD Program at 10 Years: An Overview (CRS: R45916). (2019, September 16). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45916.pdf.

[280] Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (CRS: R46240). (2020, February 26). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46240.

[281] Lee, F. L. Schickler, E. (2019, October 29). Report on the Task Force Project on Congressional Reform. American Political Science Association. https://www.legbranch.org/app/uploads/2019/11/APSA-Congressional-Reform-Task-Force-Report-11-2019-1.pdf

[282] Zaveri, M., Gates, G, and Zraick, K. (2019, January 25). “The Government Shutdown Was the Longest Ever. Here’s the History”. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/01/09/us/politics/longest-government-shutdown.html.

[283] See Chapters 10 (Article One) for more information on the expansion of the federal government.

[284] See Chapter 2 (Bipartisanship) for more information on the increasing role of leadership in congressional legislating.

[285] Hanson, P. (2015, November). Restoring regular order in congressional appropriations. The Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Download-the-paper-1.pdf; McCarty, N. (2014). The Decline of Regular Order in Appropriations: Does It Matter? Available at SSRN 2537444.

[286] For details on the evolution of the budget process, see: Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (CRS: R46240). (2020, February 26). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46240.

[287] Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (CRS: R46240). (2020, February 26). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46240.

[288] Ibid.

[289] Ibid.

[290] Saturno, J. V., Heniff, B., Jr., Lynch, M. S. (2016, November 30). The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction (CRS: R42388). https://www.senate.gov/CRSpubs/8013e37d-4a09-46f0-b1e2-c14915d498a6.pdf.

[291] Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (CRS: R46240). (2020, February 26). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46240; and Saturno, J. V., Heniff, B., Jr., Lynch, M. S. (2016, November 30). The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction (CRS: R42388). https://www.senate.gov/CRSpubs/8013e37d-4a09-46f0-b1e2-c14915d498a6.pdf.

[292] Schor, E. (2017, August 1). “McConnell plans to pass tax bill with just GOP votes” POLITICO. https://www.politico.com/story/2017/08/01/mitch-mcconnell-tax-bill-gop-votes-241212.

[293] McCarty, N. (2014). The Decline of Regular Order in Appropriations: Does It Matter? Available at SSRN 2537444. Lee, F. L. Schickler, E. (2019, October 29). Report on the Task Force Project on Congressional Reform. American Political Science Association. https://www.legbranch.org/app/uploads/2019/11/APSA-Congressional-Reform-Task-Force-Report-11-2019-1.pdf

[294] Curry, J. M. (2015). Legislating in the Dark: Information and Power in the House of Representatives. University of Chicago Press.

[295] Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices. (2016, January 14). (CRS: RL32473). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32473/32; Reynolds, M. (2018). Vital Statistics on Congress. Brooking Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/multi-chapter-report/vital-statistics-on-congress/.

[296] Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years (CRS: RL32614). (2012, January 19). https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20120119_RL32614_f802252e401ba019a7e1cee930f7a7806dbffdd6.pdf.

[297] Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices. (2016, January 14). (CRS: RL32473). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32473/32; Reynolds, M. (2018). Vital Statistics on Congress. Brooking Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/multi-chapter-report/vital-statistics-on-congress/.

[298] Woon, J., & Anderson, S. (2012). Political bargaining and the timing of congressional appropriations. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 37(4), 409-436.

[299] Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform: Opportunities to Improve the Legislative Process, 115th Congress. (2018, July 21) (Testimony of Leon Panetta). http://www.crfb.org/sites/default/files/LEP%20Written%20Testimony%20to%20JSC%207-12-18_0.pdf

[300] Continuing Resolutions: Uncertainty Limited Management Options and Increased Workload in Selected Agencies. (2009, September). GAO. https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09879.pdf.

[301] H.R. 1892, 115th Congress (2018)

[302] For a full overview of the JCBA, see: Lynch, M. Saturno, J. V. (2019, March 26). The Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform (CRS: R45111). https://www.crs.gov/Reports/R45111?source=search&guid=362bc3a569a0425398b25b2a6a1a828d&index=2

[303] Committee Print: Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives (115-15). 115th Congress. https://republicans-budget.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/CPRT-115HPRT33612.pdf

[304] Press Release: Representatives Rice, Barr Introduce Fiscal State of the Nation Resolution. (2019, October 3). Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget. https://www.crfb.org/blogs/representatives-rice-barr-introduce-fiscal-state-nation-resolution.

[305] Committee Print: Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives (115-15). 115th Congress. https://republicans-budget.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/CPRT-115HPRT33612.pdf 

[306] Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (CRS: R46240). (2020, February 26). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46240.

[307] Committee Print: Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives (115-15). 115th Congress. https://republicans-budget.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/CPRT-115HPRT33612.pdf

[308] The House Calendar and Schedule: Evaluating Practices and Challenges. 116th Congress (2020, October 16) (Testimony of Ida Brudnick). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191016/110095/HHRG-116-MH00-Bio-BrudnickI-20191016.pdf.

[309] American Political Science Association letter to the Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress. (2019, September 4).

[310] Cornwell, S. and Cassella, M. (2016, February 1). “Members of Congress are trying to spend as little time in Washington as possible”. Reuters.

[311] Bipartisan Policy Center memo to the Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress. (2019, October 14).

[312] The House Calendar and Schedule: Evaluating Practices and Challenges, 116th Congress. (2020, October 16).; Virtual Discussion: American Political Science Association Task Force, 116th Congress. (2020, June 18).

[313] The House Calendar and Schedule: Evaluating Practices and Challenges. 116th Congress (2020, October 16) (Testimony of Ida Brudnick). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191016/110095/HHRG-116-MH00-Bio-BrudnickI-20191016.pdf.[1] 

[314] CRS Report RL31835, Reorganization of the House of Representatives: Modern Reform Efforts, by Judy Schneider, Christopher M. Davis, and Betsy Palmer. October 2003. Available at https://archives-democrats-rules.house.gov/archives/RL31835.pdf

[315] Organization of the Congress: Final Report of the House Members, H.Rept. 103-413, vol. I, 103rd Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1993), pp. 18

[316] H.R.3801 - Legislative Reorganization Act of 1994 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994) as introduced

[317] The House Calendar and Schedule: Evaluating Practices and Challenges. 116th Congress (2020, October 16) (Testimony of Nevins, Kyle). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191016/110095/HHRG-116-MH00-Bio-NevinsK-20191016.pdf

[318] See Chapter 10 for more information on increasing congressional capacity in response to growth of the executive branch.

[319] APSA Task Force on Congressional Reform: Schedule and Calendar Subcommittee (2019).

[320] When the House operated on a three day, Tuesday-Thursday schedule, Members objected to late night sessions and said it contributed to family stress. See Roll Call Article “Will House Move to ‘3-on,1-off” Schedule? More than 60 Members Sign Petition Calling for Three Straight Weeks of Work, Like Senate.” By Karen Foerstel. June 1993 e

[321] Bipartisan Policy Center memo to the Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress. (2019, October 14).

[322] Rachel Orey. “A Simple Fix to Congress’ ‘Calendaring Catastrophe’. March 11, 2020. Available at https://bipartisanpolicy.org/blog/a-simple-fix-to-congress-calendaring-catastrophe/

[323] Ibid.

[324] https://www.leg.state.co.us/inethsr.nsf/Rule.xsp?id=HSERULES.25&catg=House&pg=3.0

[325] Rachel Orey. “A Simple Fix to Congress’ ‘Calendaring Catastrophe’. March 11, 2020. Available at https://bipartisanpolicy.org/blog/a-simple-fix-to-congress-calendaring-catastrophe/

[326] Bipartisan Policy Center memo to the Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress. (2019, October 14).

[327] U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress, Organization of the Congress: Final Report of the House Members, H.Rept. 103-413, vol. I, 103rd Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1993) Available at https://archives-democrats-rules.house.gov/Archives/jcoc1h2.htm

[328] Considered by JCOC.

[329] The House Calendar and Schedule: Evaluating Practices and Challenges. 116th Congress (2020, October 16) (Testimony of Nevins, Kyle). https://docs.house.gov/meetings/MH/MH00/20191016/110095/HHRG-116-MH00-Bio-NevinsK-20191016.pdf

[330] American Political Science Association letter to the Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress. (2019, September 4).

[331] Abernathy, C., Esterling, K. and Harris, M. (2019, October 2). APSA Task Force Memorandum: Congress, Technology, and Innovation. LegBranch.org. https://www.legbranch.org/apsa-task-force-memorandum-congress-technology-and-innovation/.

[332] Principles for Environmental Justice Legislation, Proposed by House Committee on Natural Resources Democrats. (2019, June 21). POPVOX. https://www.popvox.com/us/federal/prop/116/1.

[333] Miler, K. C. (2010). Constituency representation in congress: The view from Capitol Hill. Cambridge University Press.

[334] Gay, C. (2002). Spirals of trust? The effect of descriptive representation on the relationship between citizens and their government. American Journal of Political Science, 717-732.

[335] Tri-Caucus Chairs Announce New Initiative to Promote Diversity of House Committee Witnesses (2019, December 12). https://chc.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/tri-caucus-chairs-announce-new-initiative-to-promote-diversity-of-house

[336] Drutman, L. (2015). The business of America is lobbying: How corporations became politicized and politics became more corporate. Oxford University Press.

[337] Article One: Fostering a More Deliberative Process in Congress, 116th Congress. (2020, February 5).

[338] Grisales, C. (2020, May 27). “House Casts its 1st Remote Votes, with Parties Still Divided on the Issue”. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2020/05/27/863055639/house-moves-to-cast-its-1st-remote-votes-with-parties-still-divided-on-the-issue

[339] The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, final report. https://www.9-11commission.gov/report/.

[340] Editorial: “America Needs a Bigger House” (2018, November). New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/09/opinion/expanded-house-representatives-size.html